Association of climate variables with malaria morbidity in a local municipality, Ghana
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University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Publication date: 2023-04-27
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A1611
Background: Available evidence indicate the profound impact of climate variables on malaria transmission dynamics. Climate variables especially temperature, rainfall and relative humidity affect the survival, reproduction and longevity of mosquito vector which undermines current global, regional and national efforts to control malaria. Methods: A retrospective data (2011-2020) on malaria morbidity and climate variables (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) were sourced for this study. Climate data were obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency while malaria data were obtained from the Municipal Health Directorate. Evaluation of variables pattern was done using trend analysis and correlation was performed to determine the independent association of temperature, rainfall, and relative with malaria morbidity. Results: Malaria morbidity for the 10-year period has more than doubled in the municipality. Average monthly rainfall (r = 0.53, p =0.07) and relative humidity (r = 0.49, p=0.11) were positively associated with malaria morbidity while average monthly minimum (r = -0.29, p=0.36) and maximum (r = -0.56, p = 0.06) temperature were negatively associated with malaria in the municipality. Conclusions: Efforts to control malaria should include climate factors especially rainfall patterns. This is important to achieve national, regional and global efforts of malaria reduction and possible elimination.