Detection of bacillus anthracis rods in animal and human specimens, Uganda 2015-2020
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Disease control and Environmental Sciences, Department of disease control & Environmental sciences, “Kajjanisi, Wakiso District, Entebbe road”, Uganda
Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain, Department of Animal Health & Anatomy, Barcelona Spain, Spain
National One Health Platform
Center of Excellence for Emerging & Zoonotic Animal Disease, CEEZAD, Kansas State University, Georgetown University, Kansas, USA, Public Health, USA, US Minor Outlying Isles
Publication date: 2023-04-26
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A1960
Background and Objective:
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a widespread zoonotic disease affecting humans and mammals. It is endemic in Uganda and has claimed huge losses of cattle and wildlife. The disease remains an endemic public, animal health, and economic threat. This study aimed to identify positive samples during the 2015-2020 Uganda anthrax outbreaks.

Materials and Methods:
Following the anthrax outbreaks, sixteen (16) districts submitted biological specimens to the NADDEC laboratory for human and animal diagnosis. One hundred nineteen (119) specimens were submitted, including human and animal samples (Fig1 and 2). The rapid Active Anthrax Detect (AAD) kit was used for detecting Bacillus anthracis capsular polypeptide (polyglutamic acid). (Fig 3), gram staining method (Fig. 4) using the M’Fadyean test under BSL2 conditions with the microscopic examination (x100 + oil immersion). Human samples were from Kiruhura District (fig. 5). Fig 1 and 2. Sample collection from displayed cattle skin and smoked meat Fig 3 and 4: Active anthrax detect test result and gram stain showing numerous bacilli rods Fig. 5: Human lesions linked to cutaneous anthrax

Gram-positive square-ended rods with spores were detected (Fig 4). 70.5’ of Human and animal tissues tested positive for anthrax (Table 1). Anthrax cases were localized in 13 of the 16 districts sampled (Fig 6). Our results show the current risk to human, domestic and wild animal populations that exist in the endemic areas. Table 1 and Figure 6: Distribution of anthrax cases by district

Anthrax is still poorly managed due to numerous factors, including poor carcass disposal and biosecurity measures and the lack of a national anthrax control strategy. Further studies are required in the human and veterinary medicine (One Health) approach to understanding the transmission dynamics in the different risk environments to prevent and control the risk.