Efficacy of activated carbon for ammonia gas reduction in selected poultry farms in Ido local government area, Ibadan Oyo state, Nigeria
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University of Ibadan, New Nyanya, Nigeria
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Publication date: 2023-04-27
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A155
Background and Objectives: Ammonia gas is one of the major pollutant gases which is toxic to humand and animals when inhaled in high doses. Previous studies have demonstrated increase in ammonia emission levels among poultry farms but there is little information on ammonia gas emission reduction. Hence, this study utilized activated carbon filter in the reduction of ammonia emissions produced in selected poultry farms. Methods:The study adopted a quasi-experimental design and four poultry farms within Ibadan metropolis (renamed A, B, C and D) were purposively selected. Also, a fabricated glass chamber was used to monitor ammonia gas emission and reduction levels in the farm. Measurements of ammonia levels was carried-out six days in a week, three times daily for two weeks. at specific periods of the day with a total sampling period of eight weeks. Activated carbon produced from coconut shells and palm kernel shells was used as ammonia absorbent. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, T-test and ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Results: The ammonia emissions (ppm); 1150.67, 953.67, 1068.06, and 859.3 for farms A, B, C and D, respectively were higher than the guideline limits for ammonia gas by NIOSH (25ppm) and OSHA (50ppm). Coconut shells-based activated carbon had a higher absorbency capacity with the average ammonia level reduced from 36.15±30.48 at baseline to 16.38±17.71 at post-treatment level and a percentage reduction of 19.77% while Palm Kernel shells-based activated carbon had 35.80±31.15 at baseline and 18.54±16.85 at post-treatment level, with a percentage reduction of 17.26% across all the poultry farms. Conclusions: The study showed that activated carbon obtained from coconut shells had a greater absorbency potential for ammonia gas reduction when compared to palm kernel shells activated carbon. Therefore, poultry managers should include activated carbon filters as a mechanism to reduce ammonia levels in poultry farms.