Monitoring of enteric viruses in treated and untreated civil and livestock sewages in the Piemonte Region - Italy
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Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Italy
Department of Public Health and Paediatrics, University of Torino, Italy
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, Torino
Animal Health Department, Local Sanitary Service Cuneo 1, Racconigi (CN), Italy
Department of Prevention, Food and Nutrition Hygiene Service, ASL CN1, Fossano, Italy
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Torino, Italy
Local Health Unit ASL TO5 - Ce.I.R.S.A., Torino, Italy
Prevention, Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety Department, Public Health & Welfare Directorate, Piemonte Region, Italy
Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Italy
Publication date: 2023-04-27
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A208
Background and Objective: Enteric viruses are among the main causes of water-borne infectious diseases, therefore their monitoring in waters is crucial for public health. In the present work, financed by the Piemonte Region, the occurrence of seven enteric viruses was monitored in urban sewages of two Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) and in livestock sewages of three farms (beef cattle, dairy cattle and pigs). Methods: The nucleic acids of 16 influent end effluent samples of the two WWTPs were concentrated and extracted using eGeneUP® with magnetic silica, while the nucleic acids of 12 livestock manure samples were extracted using the AllPrep® PowerViral® DNA/RNA. The presence of enteroviruses (EV), adenoviruses (AdV), noroviruses (NoVs) GI/GII, hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV) and rotavirus (RV) was evaluated by PCR. Results: All municipal wastewater samples (100%) tested positive for at least one viral pathogen. 93.7% of samples tested positive for RV (93.7%), followed by NoV GII (68.7%), and AdV (43.7%). High percentages of positive samples were also detected for EV, HEV and NoV GI (37.5%), while HAV was not identified. For all viruses, except RV, the percentage of positivity in the effluent was lower than in the influent of the two WWTPs. 91.6% of the livestock manure samples tested positive for at least one viral pathogen with RV being the most present pathogen (83.3%). HAV, HEV, EV, AdV, and NoV GI,were detected in 33.3%, 33.3%, 25%, 8.3%, and 8.3% of the samples, conversely NoV GII was not found. Conclusions: Since WWTP effluents are discharged in surface waters and livestock sewages can be reused as soil fertilisers, the results highlighted the need to consider and manage these matrices as potential sources of virus spread in the environment in order to protect humans in a one-health approach.