Pediatric COVID-19 population in Tunisia from 2020 to 2022 : clinical characteristics and risk factors of severity
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Department of Prevention and Safety of Care, Sahloul University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia
Department of Prevention and Safety of Care, Sahloul University hospital, Sousse, Tunisia
Department of Prevention and Safety of Care, Sahloul university hospital, Sousse, Tunisia
Publication date: 2023-04-27
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A330
Background: Tunisia was one of the countries with the highest COVID-19 mortality worldwide. Although clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe disease in COVID-19 patients have been described in many studies, works on the pediatric population are still scarce. Objectives: The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pediatric patients in a tertiary care center since the start of the pandemic until the end of hospitalization to identify their association to severe forms. Methods: Since the start of the pandemic, the prevention and security of care department has been recording all new cases of COVID-19 hospitalized in the various units in which these patients were hospitalized. Daily monitoring of the evolution of the patient’s conditions was provided by the hygienist technicians of our department. Results: Overall, 180 confirmed COVID-19 pediatric patients have been admitted in our hospital. Most patients were male (51.1%); the median age was 1[1; 8] years. The median length of stay was 3 days [2-8]. Comorbidities were present among 43.9%: renal diseases (13.3%), coronary artery diseases (11.7%) and neurological diseases 6.7%. Most patients had an important degree of hypoxemia, with 12.8% of them requiring supplemental oxygen, and 4.4% needed intubation. The overall case fatality rate was 6.7%. The multivariate analysis revealed Independent risk factors which were: male gender (p :0.019, OR 1.363, IC [1.053-1.765]); use of nasal cannula ( p=10 -3 ; OR: 2.025, IC [1.397-2.933]); optiflow (p<10 -3, OR :11.042, IC [6.366-19.155]); noninvasive ventilation (p<10 -3,OR 24.14, IC [13.78-42.29]); comorbidities (p=0.001, 1.733[1.24; 2.42]) such as Hypertension, diabetes(p=0.016,1.44[1.07;1.93]), neurological disorders (p=0.025; 1.64[1.06; 2.53] and obesity (p<10-3;3.94[1.83;8.45]). Conclusions: identifying these risk factors is of tremendous importance to improve the management of pediatric patients at risk of severe forms and to guide the development of preventive measures.