RESEARCH PAPER
Smokeless tobacco products profile and pictorial warning labels in India: A review
Fareeda B. Shaik 1  
,   Narendra Maddu 1  
 
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1
Department of Biochemistry, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, India
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Fareeda B. Shaik   

Department of Biochemistry, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003, Andhra Pradesh, India
Submission date: 2019-01-08
Final revision date: 2019-03-27
Acceptance date: 2019-11-29
Publication date: 2019-12-19
 
Popul. Med. 2019;1(December):7
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Smokeless tobacco (SLT) companies produce different SLT brands and types that are used extensively throughout India.

Methods:
Within this cross-sectional pack-collection study, available information on details, composition, and profiles of various SLT products and the pictorial warning labels were collected from available retail paan shops in Ananthapur town, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Results:
SLT products are defined by specified names according to regional levels and the products of SLT have their own product constituents. The smokeless tobacco products like madhu chhap, hans chhap, and miraj were identified. The gutkha brands are in the form of khaleja and rebel, and are available in the Indian tobacco market. The brands of vimal, hira, rajnigandha, and RMD are panmasala products in the Ananthapur region. The health warning labels are present on the packets of most of the SLT products in the form of ‘Tobacco kills/Tobacco causes mouth cancer/ Chewing of tobacco is injurious to health/Chewing of panmasala may be injurious to health’.

Conclusions:
This limited pack-collection study identified a plethora of SLT products on the Indian market with an array of ingredients and warning labels – including graphic warning labels. These findings suggest that the monitoring of pictorial health warnings on tobacco product packaging as prevention efforts/measures is warranted.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
FUNDING
There was no source of funding for this research.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
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