Association between diet and circulating bile acids in an italian general population
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EPIMED Research Center, University of Insubria, Varese, and Clinica Mediterranea, Napoli Italy
Public Helath School,University of Milano Bicocca, Milano Italy
EPIMED Research Center, University of Insubria, Varese Italy
Public Health School, University of Insubria, Varese Italy
Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano Italy
Occupational and Preventive Medicine and Toxicology, ASST Sette Laghi, Varese Italy
Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Trento Italy
School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds United Kingdom
EPIMED Research Center, University of Insubria, Varese, and Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli Italy
Publication date: 2023-04-26
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A1507
Background and objective:
Bile acids (BAs) are synthesized in the liver as primary BAs, to facilitate absorption of dietary fat. In the intestinal lumen, primary BAs are partially converted by gut microbiota in secondary BAs, then excreted to feces or reabsorbed in blood. Literature suggests that circulating BA levels could have effects on metabolic health and could be modulated by diet. We investigated the association between habitual diet and fasting levels of circulating BAs in Italian adults.

A subsample of 1080 subjects was randomly selected from the RoCAV population-based study (men and women 60-75 years, recruitment period 2013-2016). Dietary habits (previous year) were collected using the EPIC questionnaire. BAs were measured from frozen plasma samples, collected after overnight fasting, using HPLC MS/MS. Cross-sectional association analyses between dietary data (dietary patterns and total food, macronutrient and food group intakes) and BA levels were performed using multivariable regression models.

In the age- and sex-adjusted model, we found a negative association between total food intake and seconday BAs (for increase of 1 SD of edible part: Est=-0.14 SDs of BAs, p=0.0004) or specific BA (DCA, secondary: -0.14, p=0.0002; CDCA, primary: -0.13, p=0.0005). When total food intake was added as covariate, chronic alcohol consumption was associated with primary BAs (0.17, p=0.00002; wine: 0.13, p=0.0006), while not with secondary BAs, despite the dependence of secondary BAs on their substrates, the primary BAs.

These results showed associations between total food intake and fasting circulating BAs. Moreover, wine consumption was associated with selected BA groups, independently on total food intake. Further prospective studies should be designed to investigate the cause-effect relationship between diet and BAs, to establish circulating BA profiles as potential mediators of the effect of diet on health. Funded by italian ministry of university and research and jpi-hdl era-net 2016.

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