Demographic and housing factors in Lassa fever transmission in a high disease burden State in Nigeria
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Department of Community Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
World Health Organization, Asaba, Nigeria
Walden University, Baltimore, United States
Department of Community Medicine, ISTH, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
Publication date: 2023-04-27
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A247
Background and Objective: Lassa fever is endemic in Nigeria and there are yearly outbreaks in many areas including Edo State with associated severe morbidity and high mortality rates. Empirical evidence on the contribution or otherwise of socio-demographic characteristics to transmission of the infection is sparse. This study was designed to determine demographic and housing factors related to Lassa fever transmission in Edo State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which a sample of 336 adults was drawn from 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the state using multi-stage sampling technique. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from respondents. Analysis of data was done using SPSS version 25 and relationship between demographic and housing characteristics and transmission of Lassa fever were tested with Chi square and multi-nomial logistic regression. Results: Majority of respondents (76.5%) lived in rural areas. More than two-thirds (69.9%) resided in brick houses, 54.8% reported presence of rodent entry points in their houses, and more than one-third were observed to have bushy or littered house surroundings. Urban residence, ethnicity, and poor housing were significantly associated with high Lassa fever transmission (X2= 54.490, p<0.001; X2= 66.648, p<0.001; X2= 25.435, p<0.001 respectively). Rural residence increased the odds of low transmission by 6.991 times (B= 1.945, 95% CI: 3.580-13.651). Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between some demographic and housing characteristics with transmission of Lassa fever. Effective and sustainable control strategies for the deadly disease require strong consideration of these factors. Keywords: Lassa fever, demographic factors, housing, Edo State
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