Household food security access and dietary diversity amidst covid-19 pandemic in nepal; an evidence from rapid assessment
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Public Health Promotion and Development Organization Dhapakhel Nepal
Publication date: 2023-04-26
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A436
Pandemic led to the surging concerns of food insecurity status throughout the world. In response to global and national concerns on food and nutrition security, the presented study aimed to examine the prevalence and determining factors of household food insecurity and dietary diversity among people from selected rural municipalities of Lalitpur, Nepal.

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 432 households. A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, household income; the impact of COVID-19 on their income and livelihood, household access to food, and dietary diversity. Food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), version 3, and the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS). Bivariate and multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between the dependent and independent variables.

This study found the prevalence of household food insecurity, and low/medium household dietary diversity were 36.1% (95% CI: 31.7-40.8), and 63.2% (95%CI: 58.5-67.6) respectively. Also, households receiving COVID-19 support have had a significantly positive association with the HFS score (COR=1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.53) compared to those who did not receive any form of support. Multiple regression showed the disadvantaged ethnic group (AOR=2.73, 95% CI: 1.23-6.07), who did not attend formal education had significantly higher odds of household food insecurity (AOR= 3.70, 95% CI: 1.16-11.71). In contrast, participants of the age group 41-64 years were less likely to have food security and have consumed diverse diet (AOR=0.35, 95% CI: 0.21-0.59), and (AOR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28-0.83), respectively compared to the reference group of 20-40 years.

Owing to the pandemic, our study concluded the increased prevalence of food insecurity among diverse communities. Despite this, dietary diversity was found to be acceptable, indicating the much-needed attention on food security in forthcoming emergencies among those of such rural settings.

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