Impact of COVID-19 vaccination on mortality from COVID-19 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SRAG-Covid) in Brazilian municipalities in 2021
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René Rachou Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil
Federal University of Ouro Preto, Brazil
Fiocruz, Brazil
Publication date: 2023-04-27
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A341
Background and Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Brazil had difficulties in carrying out a timely vaccination campaign throughout its territory, already marked by strong social and health inequalities. The combination of vaccination of delay and structural inequality produced a heterogeneous vaccine coverage across the country. This work Aims to evaluate the differences in the impact of COVID-19 vaccination by on mortality due to COVID-19 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SRAG-Covid) in the country municipalities. In 2022, the initial difficulties on providing adequate vaccination coverage were overpassed. Methods: Ecological study from January to December 2021, with monthly data from 200 Brazilian municipalities in five Brazilian regions with at least 25 deaths from COVID-19 in January 2021. A linear regression model was performed for the country and regions, with log-log transformation and fixed effects in the municipality, using SARS-Covid mortality rate standardized by age and sex as the dependent variable, first dose coverage as the independent variable and a significance level of 5%. Results: The monthly average standardized mortality rate in January 2021 was 33.1 deaths/100,000 inhabitants, being higher in municipalities in the North and Midwest regions. Vaccination started in January 2021 and reached an average first dose coverage of 74.5% in December 2021, when the average mortality rate was 2.2 deaths/100,000 inhabitants, fifteen times lower than January 2021. A 10% increase in vaccination coverage caused an average decrease of 5.6% in the municipalities monthly mortality rate, with a significant effect in all regions, greater in the North (8.7%) and Northeast (6.3%). Conclusions: Also in Brazil, vaccination was crucial for reducing deaths from COVID-19 and had a greater effect in the poorest regions of Brazil. A homogeneous increase in vaccination coverage, with a timely and well-articulated campaign by the central government, could be an important tool for reducing the countrys territorial inequalities.
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