The future risk and prevention of climate-change induced arboviral diseases in the European Union through a planetary health perspective: a systematic literature review
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Maastricht University, The Netherlands
Maastricht University, Netherlands
Publication date: 2023-04-27
Popul. Med. 2023;5(Supplement):A205
Introduction: Climate Change redefines the spread of arboviral diseases. The European Union is becoming increasingly active in implementing adaptation and mitigation strategies, to limit greenhouse gas emissions and prevent adverse climate change effects. Methods: A systematic literature review of 139 Reports using the PRISMA flowchart was performed to gather secondary data. Results: The arboviral species Ixodes ricinus ticks, Aedes aegypti- and Aedes albopictus mosquitos, their spread, and the associated infectious diseases of dengue, zika, and chikungunya, tick-borne encephalitis, and Lyme borreliosis, are identified as the most important vectors in Europe. The European Union is increasingly reliant on One Health approaches to enact environmental policy, and aims at improving surveillance and data sharing, as a spread of arboviral diseases resulting from Climate Change is expected. Discussion: The spread of the assessed arboviral diseases is predicted, current models however fail to predict the spread at the regional level. European Policy is present, but a more coherent shared vision is needed to enable better local, national and supranational decision-making. Inclusion of planetary health, one health and Nature-based Solutions offer increased biodiversity, human, environmental and animal health protection. The effectiveness of recent EU action remains to be established. Conclusions: The European Union needs enhanced surveillance systems that can predict high-risk areas for the emergence and spread of diseases are necessary, to effectively protect the European region from the growing infectious disease risk. Nature-based Solutions hold the capacity to protect human and environmental health better, and, if efficiently researched and implemented, incorporate cross-sectoral decision-making and lower intervention costs.